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Always follow the instructions on the laxative medicine, as well as the advice of your doctor. Irritable bowel syndrome also called spastic colon, irritable colon, or nervous stomach is a condition in which the colon muscle contracts more often than in people without IBS. Certain foods, medicines, and emotional stress are some factors that can trigger IBS. Structural disorders are those in which the bowel looks abnormal and doesn't work properly.

Sometimes, the structural abnormality needs to be removed surgically. Common examples of structural GI disorders include hemorrhoids, diverticular disease, colon polyps, colon cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels that line the anal opening. They are caused by chronic excess pressure from straining during a bowel movement, persistent diarrhea, or pregnancy. Internal hemorrhoids are blood vessels on the inside of the anal opening.


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When they fall down into the anus as a result of straining, they become irritated and start to bleed. Ultimately, internal hemorrhoids can fall down enough to prolapse sink or stick out of the anus. External hemorrhoids are veins that lie just under the skin on the outside of the anus.

Sometimes, after straining, the external hemorrhoidal veins burst and a blood clot forms under the skin. This very painful condition is called a pile.

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Anal fissures are splits or cracks in the lining of the anal opening. The most common cause of an anal fissure is the passage of very hard or watery stools. The crack in the anal lining exposes the underlying muscles that control the passage of stool through the anus and out of the body. An anal fissure is one of the most painful problems because the exposed muscles become irritated from exposure to stool or air, and leads to intense burning pain, bleeding, or spasm after bowel movements.

Initial treatment for anal fissures includes pain medicine, dietary fiber to reduce the occurrence of large, bulky stools, and sitz baths sitting in a few inches of warm water.

What is the bowel?

If these treatments don't relieve pain, surgery might be needed to repair the sphincter muscle. Perianal abscesses can occur when the tiny anal glands that open on the inside of the anus become blocked, and the bacteria always present in these glands cause an infection. When pus develops, an abscess forms. Treatment includes draining the abscess, usually under local anesthesia in the doctor's office. An anal fistula often follows drainage of an abscess and is an abnormal tube-like passageway from the anal canal to a hole in the skin near the opening of the anus.


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  4. Body wastes traveling through the anal canal are diverted through this tiny channel and out through the skin, causing itching and irritation. Fistulas also cause drainage, pain, and bleeding. They rarely heal by themselves and usually need surgery to drain the abscess and "close off" the fistula. Sometimes the skin glands near the anus become infected and need to be drained. Just behind the anus, abscesses can form that contain a small tuft of hair at the back of the pelvis called a pilonidal cyst. Sexually transmitted diseases that can affect the anus include anal warts, herpes, AIDS, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

    Diverticulosis is the presence of small outpouchings diverticula in the muscular wall of the large intestine that form in weakened areas of the bowel. They usually occur in the sigmoid colon, the high-pressure area of the lower large intestine.

    UPMC Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center

    It is often caused by too little roughage fiber in the diet. Diverticulosis rarely causes symptoms. However, they should not be taken if you have a high fever or bloody diarrhea, which can be signs of a bacterial infection. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, see your health care provider. Also see your health care provider if your stools contain blood or pus or if you have a fever, severe abdominal pain, or signs of dehydration thirst, dry skin, fatigue, dizziness, less frequent urination, or dark-colored urine. If you use birth control pills, diarrhea or vomiting may decrease their effectiveness.

    Call your health care provider about what to do if you have vomiting or diarrhea that lasts for 48 hours or more after taking a combined birth control pill or that lasts for 3 hours or more after taking a progestin-only pill. Acid reflux occurs when the muscle in your esophagus that opens and closes when you swallow does not work properly.

    When this happens, food and digestive fluids, which contain acid, back up into your esophagus. Acid reflux can cause a burning feeling in your chest and throat, which sometimes is called heartburn. Several over-the-counter medications are available that may help reduce your symptoms. Antacids reduce the acid content in the stomach.

    Other medications stop the digestive system from making too much acid. Some of these medications are available over the counter. If acid reflux occurs more than twice a week, or if you have been taking over-the-counter medications for more than 2 weeks with no relief, you may have a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD.

    Treatment includes lifestyle changes and medication.

    irritable bowel syndrome Archives | Carlisle Digestive Disease Associates

    Surgery also is used to treat GERD in some cases. GERD that is not treated can lead to complications, including ulcers in the esophagus, narrowing of the esophagus, and a precancerous condition called Barrett esophagus. If you have GERD, it is important to see your health care provider regularly for treatment and follow-up.

    Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in and around the anus and lower rectum. They can become painful, itchy, and irritated. The symptoms of hemorrhoids can be relieved with ice packs to reduce swelling. Sitting in a bath of warm water may relieve symptoms. You also may use a hemorrhoid cream or suppositories. Surgery may be needed to remove hemorrhoids in some cases. Adding fiber and fluids to your diet can help prevent hemorrhoids. These disorders affect more women than men.

    They can last for weeks or months, although symptoms can come and go. Irritable bowel syndrome mainly affects women between the ages of 30 years and 50 years.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Why Choose Vanderbilt

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome may include the following:. Importance of gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    UPMC Digestive Disorders Center

    Practical Gastroenterology. September Drossman DA, et al. Rome IV, the functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology ;— Rome III, the functional gastrointestinal disorders. April Volume Number 5. Your voices made a positive impact across Capitol Hill.