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In the distance on the right is a circle of Indian teepees with a fire burning. Looming up out of the John Martin-style, over-arching clouds, is a sloping mountain topped by a distinctive boulder, which appears in all five paintings.

As you can see, the paintings combine epic scale and deep perspective with a beguiling attention to minute detail. The Consummation of Empire is in some ways the most visually pleasing.

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It adds to your appreciation to learn that the five paintings are conceived of taking place at different times of day: Savage at dawn, Arcadia in mid-morning, Consummation in the full light of a Mediterranean noon, Destruction in the late afternoon, and Desolation at moonrise. A whole room is devoted to these five enormous paintings with a handful of works from Italy on other walls so you can see where ideas of perspective, and especially of classical buildings and plant-covered ruins came from.

It is a dazzling array of visionary genius. Jackson is controversial nowadays for the politically correct reasons that he was a slave-owner who also took a tough line with native Americans, leading the US Army in the First Seminole War , and in signing an Indian Relocation Act which expelled native Americans from the South to the mid-West of America, causing an immensely destructive uprooting of peoples and cultures in which many died.

Why did Cole dislike Jackson so much? For Cole is seen by many as not only the first serious painter of landscapes in America, and founder of the Hudson River School of art, but also as one of the first American environmentalists. Coincidentally and ironically, the same year saw construction begin on the Hudson Valley railway. Photo by Juan Trujillo. The commentary very usefully pointed out the way Cole uses techniques borrowed from Claude Lorraine, namely the elegant trees framing the view, at the right, and the big eggshell blue sky, to convey a tremendous sense of openness and tranquility, against which his characteristically tiny people are framed.

The framing pair at the right of the earlier work, and the smaller one on the left, have disappeared, replaced by hacked-down stumps.

Exile Trust: A Frank Cole Mystery

Worse, where the entire lake was previously lined by an elegant sweep of trees, now these have all gone, replaced by low-growing bushes. Removing the trees eliminates the sense of depth and mystery from the view. The railway itself cuts across the middle distance and this also, once you focus on it, has a subtly undermining effect.

Previously the view unfolded with a sense of limitless depths, a sense of mystery succeeding wooded mystery. Now, denuded of trees and bisected by this subtle but decisive line, the entire landscape now appears somehow more constrained and controlled.

This is a huge and hugely enjoyable painting, with much to note and savour. Moving from left to right, up in the sky, we pass from a violent thunderstorm with forked lightning at the extreme left , to the storm petering out, whiter clouds and then a clear blue sky appearing. This movement is paralleled on the earth by a movement from violently broken trees in the left foreground and dense virgin brush in the middle-left, suddenly giving way with a great sense of release to a huge vista down over the river valley to the mountains beyond.

And down in the river valley — in striking contrast to the dark, dark green of the wild brush in the left foreground, is the honey yellow of wheatfields in which stand tiny stooks of wheat. Scattered among the orderly yellow and light green fields are occasional settlements of good, honest, horny-handed farmers.

Down at the bottom right is a ford with a few horses coming down to it and a raft crossing the river. Which future will America choose, a federation of independent farmers, or go down the ruinous path of the Britain which Cole had himself escaped, towards industrialisation, environmental ruination and the transformation of free agricultural workers into a wretched proletariat?

More light-heartedly, Cole has painted himself into his work.

THE TRANSPARENCY TONIC by Frank L. Cole | Kirkus Reviews

At the bottom, just to the right of centre, you can see his head and hat emerging from behind a log. Here I am.

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What are you going to make of it? Detail of The Oxbow by Thomas Cole, showing the artist himself. The Oxbow has never been seen in the UK before. It is just one of about 20 paintings which are normally based in America, are rarely displayed together, and are well worth paying the admission price to see and savour. Products of this store will be shipped directly from Japan to your country.

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App Download. US UK. Hoppers Award, Outstanding Young Investigator. Work Email Address: coles ucla. Work Phone Number: Cancer, ; 14 : Psychoneuroendocrinology, ; 52 2 : Series B, Biological sciences, ; :. Monographs, ; 50 : Brain, behavior, and immunity, ; 30 Suppl 13 : S Cancer metastasis reviews, ; 50 :.